Tim Valentine's Research Page

Professor Tim Valentine BSc PhD CPsychol CSci FBPsS

Research interests:

face recognition, eyewitness identification, eyewitness testimony

Contact details:

Department of Psychology, 
Goldsmiths College,
University of London,  Email: [email protected]
New Cross, London SE14 6NW Goldsmiths Webpage 

Publications in reverse chronological order

Links are to Acrobat (pdf) files of the articles. A copy may be downloaded for personal educational use only. Acrobat reader is required to read these files. A copy can be downloaded from the Adobe website via this link: 

Valentine, t., Lewis, M.B. & Hills, P. J. (2016). Face-space: A unifying concept in face recognition research. Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology, 69, 1996-2019. . DOI: 10.1080/17470218.2014.990392  (Invited paper for a special issue on the 10 most cited papers published in the Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology.)

Davis, J. P., Valentine, T., Memon, A. & Roberts, A. J. (2014).  Identification on the street:  A field comparison of police street identifications and video lineups in England. Psychology, Crime & Law, 21, 9 - 27.  DOI: 10.1080/1068316X.2014.915322 PDF

Roberts, A.,  Davis, J., Valentine, T.,&  Memon, A. (2014). Should we be concerned about street identifications? Criminal Law Review, 633-654

Alogna, V. K., Attaya, M. K., Aucoin, P., Bahnik, S., Birch, S., Birt, A. R., …Valentine, T....Zwaan, R. A. (2014). Registered replication report: Schooler & Engstler-Schooler (1990). Perspectives on Psychological Science, 9, 556–578. DOI: 10.1177/1745691614545653 (Multilab replication initiated by journal editors with 91 authors.)

Valentine T. (2014). Estimating the reliability of eyewitness identification.  In: Perfect, T .J. & Lindsay, D. S. (eds.). Sage handbook of applied memory. (pp. 579-594) Sage: London.

Hobson, Z, Wilcock, R. & Valentine. T. (2013). Multiple suspect showings: A survey of police identification officers. Policing, 7, 79-87. DOI: 10.1093/police/pas021

Smith-Spark, J. H., Moore, V., & Valentine, T. (2013). Determinants of famous name processing speed: Age of acquisition versus semantic connectedness. Acta Psychologica,142, 230-237.DOI: 10.1016/j.actpsy.2012.11.016

Valentine, T.,  Davis, J. P, Memon, A. & Roberts A. (2012).  Live showups and their influence on a subsequent video lineup. Applied Cognitive Psychology, 26, 1-23. DOI: 10.1002/acp.1796 PDF

Smith-Spark, J. H., Moore, V., & Valentine, T. (2012). Long-term age of acquisition effects in famous name processing. Acta Psychologica,139, 202-211. DOI: 10.1016/j.actpsy.2011.10.002

Davis, J. P., Valentine, T. & Wilkinson, C. M. (2012). Facial Image comparison. In: Wilkinson, C. & Ryan, C. Craniofacial identification. (pp. 136-153).Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Valentine T. (2012). Identification evidence. In: Davies, G. & Beech, A. (eds.). Forensic Psychology: Crime, Justice, Law, Interventions. (2nd ed.) (pp. 267-285.) Chichester Wiley- Blackwell

Valentine, T. & Maras, K. (2011). The effect of cross-examination on the accuracy of adult eyewitness testimony. Applied Cognitive Psychology, 25, 554-561. Download 213K pdf file. DOI: 10.1002/acp.1768

Davis, J. P., Valentine, T. & Davis, R. E. (2010). Computer assisted photo-anthropometric analyses of full-face and profile facial images. Forensic Science International, 200, 165-176. Download 601K pdf file. DOI: 10.1016/j.forsciint.2010.04.012

Valentine, T., Davis, J. P., Thorner, K., Solomon, C., & Gibson, S. (2010). Evolving and combining facial composites: Between-witness and within-witness morphs compared. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Applied, 61, 72-86

Thompson, P., Anstis, S., Rhodes, G., Jeffery, L. & Valentine, T. ( 2009). Thompson’s 1980 paper. Perception, 38, 921– 932. Download 80K pdf file. DOI: 10.1068/ldmk-tho

Bull, R., Valentine, T. & Williamson, T. (2009). (Eds.) The handbook of psychology of investigative interviewing. Chichester: Wiley.

Valentine, T., Hughes, C. & Munro, R. (2009). Recent developments in eyewitness identification procedures in the United Kingdom. In: Bull, R., Valentine, T. & Williamson, T. (eds.) The handbook of psychology of investigative interviewing. Chichester: Wiley. (pp.221-240).

Davis, J. & Valentine, T. (2009). CCTV on trial: Matching video images with the defendant in the dock. Applied Cognitive Psychology, 23, 482-505. Download 959K pdf file. DOI: 10.1002/acp.1490

Valentine, T. & Mesout, J. (2009). Eyewitness identification under stress in the London Dungeon. Applied Cognitive Psychology, 23, 151-161.Download 199K pdf file. DOI: 10.1002/acp.1463

Angeli, A, Davidoff, J. and Valentine, T. (2008). Face familiarity, distinctiveness and categorical perception. Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology, 61, 690-707.

Powell, J., Letson, S., Davidoff, J., Valentine, T and Greenwood, R. (2008). Enhancement of face recognition learning in patients with brain injury using three cognitive training procedures. Neuropsychological Rehabilitation, 18,182-203.

Darling, S., Valentine, T., and Memon, A. (2008). Selection of lineup foils in operational contexts Applied Cognitive Psychology, 22, 159-169.. Download 193K pdf file. Fig 1. Fig 2. DOI: 10.1002/acp.1366

Valentine, T, Darling, S. & Memon, A. (2007). Do strict rules and moving images increase the reliability of sequential identification procedures? Applied Cognitive Psychology, 21, 933-949. Download 311K pdf file. DOI: 10.1002/acp.1306

Leslie, O., Young, S., Valentine, T. & Gudjonsson, G. (2007). Criminal barristers' opinions and perceptions of mental health expert witnesses. Journal of Forensic Psychiatry & Psychology, 18, 394-410. Download 100K pdf file.

Stone, A. & Valentine, T. (2007a). The categorical structure of knowledge for famous people (and a novel application of the Centre-Sorround Theory) Cognition, 104, 535-564. Download 287K pdf file.

Stone, A. & Valentine, T. (2007b). Angry and happy faces perceived without awareness: A comparison with the affective impact of masked famous faces. European Journal of Cognitive Psychology, 19, 161-186.

Davies, G. M. & Valentine, T. (2007). Facial composites: forensic utility and psychological research. In: R.C.L. Linsay, D.F. Ross, J.D. Read & M. P. Toglia Handbook of eyewitness psychology. Volume 2: Memory for people. Mahwah: LEA.(pp. 59-83) Download 371K pdf file.

Smith-Spark, J. H., Moore, V., Valentine, T., & Sherman, S. M. (2006). Stimulus generation, ratings, phoneme counts, and group classifications for 696 famous people by British adults aged over 40 years. Behavior Research Methods, Instruments & Computers 38, 590-597. Download 295K pdf file

Valentine, T., Darling, S., Memon, A. (2006). How can psychological science enhance the effectiveness of identification procedures? An international comparison. Public Interest Law Reporter, 11, 21-39. Download 271K pdf file.

Valentine, T. (2006). Forensic facial identifcation. In: Heaton-Armstrong, A., Shepherd, E., Gudjonsson, G. & Wolchover, D. (eds). Witness Testimony; Psychological, Investigative and Evidential Perspectives. Oxford: Oxford University Press. Download 326K pdf file.

Valentine, T., & Darling, S. (2006). Competitor effects in naming objects and famous faces. European Journal of Cognitive Psycholog, 18, 686-707. Download 131K pdf file

Valentine, T., Powell, J., Davidoff, J., Letson, S. & Greenwood, R. (2006). Prevalence and correlates of face recognition impairments after acquired brain injury. Neuropsychological Rehabilitation. 16, 292-297. Download 545K pdf file

Stone, A. & Valentine, T. (2005). Strength of visual percept generated by famous faces perceived without awareness: Effects of affective valence, response latency and visual field. Consciousness and Cognition, 14, 548-564. Download 401K pdf file

Stone, A. & Valentine, T. (2005). Accuracy of familiarity decisions to famous faces perceived without awareness depends on attitude to the target person and response latency. Consciousness and Cognition, 14, 351-376. Download 427K pdf file

Stone, A. & Valentine, T. (2005). Orientation of attention to non-consciously recognised famous faces. Cognition & Emotion, 19, 537-558. Download 379K pdf file.

Darling, S. & Valentine T. (2005). The categorical structure of semantic memory for famous people: A new approach using release from proactive interference. Cognition, 96, 35-65. Download 502K pdf file.

Stone, A. & Valentine, T. (2004). Better the Devil You Know? Non-conscious Processing of Identity and Affect of Famous Persons. Psychonomic Bulletin & Review, 11, 469-474.  Download 133K pdf file.

Valentine, T., Darling, S. & Donnelly, M. (2004). Why are average faces attractive? The effect of view and averageness on the attractiveness of female faces. Psychonomic Bulletin & Review, 11, 482-487.  Download 297K pdf file.

Moore, V., Smith-Spark, J. & Valentine, T. (2004). The effect of age of acquisition on object perception. European Journal of Cognitive Psychology, 16, 417-439.  Download 85K pdf file.

Stone, A. & Valentine, T. (2003). Perspectives on prosopagnosia and models of face recognition. Cortex, 39, 31-41. Download 125K pdf file.

Valentine, T., Pickering, A. & Darling, S. (2003). Characteristics of eyewitness identification that predict the outcome of real lineups. Applied Cognitive Psychology , 17, 969-993. Download 199K pdf file.

Valentine, T., Harris, N. Colom Piera, A. & Darling, S. (2003). Are police video indentifications fair to African-Caribbean suspects? Applied Cognitive Psychology, 17, 459-476. Download 106K pdf file. Download unpublished data for individual lineups.

Stone, A. & Valentine, T. (2003). Understanding provoked overt recognition in prosopagnosia: a modification to Morrison, Bruce and Burton (2001) Visual Cognition, 10, 1- 6. Download 22K pdf file

Stone, A., Valentine, T. & Davies, R. (2001). Face recognition and emotional valence: processing without awareness by neurologically-intact participants does not simulate covert recognition in prosopagnosia. Cognitive, Affective & Behavioural Neuroscience, 1, 183-191. Download 88K pdf file

Valentine, T. (2001). Face-space models of face recognition. In: M.J. Wenger & J.T. Townsend (eds.) Computational, geometric, and process perspectives on facial cognition: Contexts and challenges. Mahwah: LEA (pp.83-113) Download 687K pdf file

Hollis, J. & Valentine, T. (2001). Proper name processing: Are proper names pure referencing expressions? Journal of Experimental Psychology: Learning, Memory & Cognition, 27, 99-116.Download 139K pdf file

Davies, G. M. & Valentine, T. (1999). Codes of practice for identification. Expert Evidence, 7, 59-65. Download 20K pdf file

Valentine, T. & Heaton, P. (1999). An evaluation of the fairness of Police line-ups and video identifications. Applied Cognitive Psychology, 13, S59-S72. Download 55K pdf file

Valentine, T., Hollis, J. & Moore, V. (1999). The nominal competitor effect: When one name is better than two. Proceedings of the twenty-first annual meeting of the Cognitive Science Society, Mahwah, LEA.  (pp. 749-754) Download 65Kpdf file

Moore, V & Valentine, T. (1999). The effects of age-of-acquisition in processing famous faces and names: Exploring the locus and proposing a mechanism.  Proceedings of the twenty-first annual meeting of the Cognitive Science Society. Mahwah: LEA.  (pp. 416-421) Download 65K pdf file

Moore, V., Valentine, T. & Turner, J. (1999). Age-of-acquisition and cumulative frequency have independent effects. Cognition, 72, 305-309.

Newell, F. N., Chiroro, P. & Valentine, T. (1999). Recognising unfamiliar faces: The effects of distinctiveness and view. Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology, 52A, 509-534.

Turner, J., Valentine, T. & Ellis, A. W. (1998). Contrasting effects of age of acquisition and word frequency on auditory and visual lexical decision. Memory and Cognition26, 1282-1291. Download pdf file from Psychomics Society website

Valentine, T., Hollis, J. & Moore, V. (1998). On the relationship between reading, listening and speaking: It's different for people's names. Memory and Cognition, 26, 740-753. Download pdf file from Psychomics Society website.

Moore, V & Valentine, T. (1998). The effect of age-of-acquisition on speed and accuracy of naming famous faces. Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology, 51A, 485-513.

Brédart, S. & Valentine, T. (1998). Descriptiveness and proper name retrieval. Memory, 6, 199-206.

Valentine, T.  (1998). Real faces and proper names: The psychology of recognising people. Inaugural lecture series. Goldsmiths College: New Cross, London.

Coxon, P & Valentine, T. (1997). The effects of the age of eyewitnesses on the accuracy of their testimony. Applied Cognitive Psychology, 11, 415-430. Download 194K pdf file

Valentine, T.  (1997). Regulation of the disposal of hazardous waste by the UK cement industry. In: Russell, N., Byron, H.,  Dixon, A. & Richardson, J. Technology, the environment and us. Proceedings of the sixth IRNES conference. London: Imperial College.

Brédart, S., Brennen, T. & Valentine, T. (1997). Is there a double dissociation between processing of proper names and common names? Cognitive Neuropsychology, 14, 209-217.

Valentine, T., Brennen, T. & Brédart, S., (1996). The cognitive psychology of proper names. London: Routledge.

Valentine, T., (1995). Cognitive and computational aspects of face recognition: Explorations in face space.  London: Routledge.

Valentine, T., Chiroro, P. & Dixon, R. (1995). An account of the own-race bias and the contact hypothesis in terms of a face space model of face recognition. In: Valentine, T., (ed.) Cognitive and computational aspects of face recognition: Explorations in face space.  London: Routledge.

Valentine, T. & Moore, V. (1995). Naming faces: The effects of facial distinctiveness and surname frequency. Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology, 48A, 849-878.

Chiroro, P. & Valentine, T. (1995).  An investigation of the contact hypothesis of the own-race bias in face recognition. Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology, 48A, 879-894.

Valentine, T., Moore, V. & Brédart, S. (1995). Priming production of people's names. Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology, 48A, 513-535.

Brédart, S., Valentine, T., Calder, A. & Gassi, L. (1995). An interactive activation model of face naming. Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology, 48A, 466-486.

Diamond, B. J., Valentine, T., Mayes, A. R. & Sandel M. E. (1994). Evidence of covert recognition in a prosopagnosic patient. Cortex, 30, 377-393.

Valentine, T., Moore, V., Flude, B. M., Young, A. W. & Ellis, A. W. (1993). Repetition priming and proper name processing. Do common names and proper names prime each other? Memory, 1, 329-349.

Astley, S., Hutt, I. , Miller, P., Rose, P., Taylor, C., Boggis, C., Adamson,  S., Valentine, T., Davis, J. & Armstrong, J. (1993). Automation in mammography: computer vision and human perception. International Journal of Pattern Recognition and Artificial Intelligence, 7, 1313-1338.

Brédart, S. & Valentine, T. (1992). From Monroe to Moreau: An analysis of face naming errors. Cognition, 45, 187-223.

Maylor, E. A. & Valentine, T.  (1992). Linear and non-linear effects of aging on categorizing and naming faces. Psychology and Aging, 7, 317-323.

Valentine, T. & Endo, M. (1992). Towards an exemplar model of face processing: The effects of race and distinctiveness. Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology, 44A, 671-703.

Valentine, T. (1991). A unified account of the effects of distinctiveness, inversion and race in face recognition. Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology, 43A, 161-204.

Valentine, T. (1991). Representation and process in face recognition. In: R. Watt (ed.) Pattern recognition by Man and Machine. (Vol. 14 in 'Vision and Visual Dysfunction' series edited by J. Cronly-Dillon) London: Macmillan Press.

Valentine, T., Brédart, S., Lawson, R. & Ward, G. (1991). What's in a name? Access to information from peoples' names. European Journal of Cognitive Psychology, 3, 147-176.

Papagno, C., Valentine, T. & Baddeley, A. (1991). Phonological short-term memory and foreign-language vocabulary learning. Journal of Memory and Language, 30, 331-347.

Valentine, T. & Ferrara, A. (1991) Typicality in categorization, recognition and identification: Evidence from face recognition. British Journal of Psychology, 82, 87-102.

Papagno, C., Baddeley, A. & Valentine, T. (1989). Memoria fonologica a breve termite e apprendimento verbale. Archivo di Psicologia Neurologia e Psichiatria, 50, 542-557. (Phonological short-term memory and verbal learning - English abstract.)

Valentine, T. (1988). Upside down faces: A review of the effect of inversion upon face recognition. British Journal of Psychology, 79, 471-491.

Valentine, T. & Bruce, V. (1988) Mental rotation of faces. Memory and Cognition, 16, 556-566.

Bruce, V. & Valentine, T. (1988). When a nod's as good as a wink: The role of dynamic information in face recognition. In: Gruneberg, M. M., Morris, P. E. and Sykes, R. N. (eds.) Practical aspects of memory: Current research and issues. Vol. 1. Chichester: John Wiley & Sons.

Bruce, V., Valentine, T. & Baddeley, A. (1987). The basis of the three-quarters view advantage in face recognition. Applied Cognitive Psychology, 1, 109-120.

Valentine, T. & Bruce, V. (1986a) The effects of race, inversion and encoding activity upon face recognition. Acta Psychologica, 61, 259-273. doi:10.1016/0001-6918(86)90085-5

Valentine, T. & Bruce, V. (1986b). Recognizing familiar faces: The role of distinctiveness and familiarity. Canadian Journal of Psychology, 40, 300-305.

Valentine, T. & Bruce, V. (1986c). The effects of distinctiveness in recognising and classifying faces. Perception, 15, 525-535.

Bruce, V. & Valentine, T. (1986). Semantic priming in face recognition. Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology, 38A, 125-150.

Valentine, T. & Bruce, V. (1985). What's up? The Margaret Thatcher illusion revisited. Perception, 14, 515-516.

Bruce, V. & Valentine, T. (1985). Identity priming in face recognition. British Journal of Psychology, 76, 373-383.

Valentine, T. (1983). The measurement of frequency resolution in normal and hearing impaired listeners. ISVR Memorandum No 641. University of Southampton.